The British physicist and mathematician,who has had made significant contributions in cosmology,is currently the director of research at the centre for Theoretical cosmology within the university of cambridge.Despite suffering from a rare life threatening condition of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis(ALS),he is known for his revolutionary prediction that black holes emit radiation ,which is now also referred to as Hawking radiation .As he turned 75 on Jan 8,2017 we look back at his life,career and achievements.Though the article is late information I am about provide you from various source of article around the internet and from other news apps.
Born on January 8,1942,in Oxford,England,to Frank and Isobel hawking.He is the eldest of the four children in the family.His father was a medical researcher and mother was one of the first female students to have graduated from the Oxford University.
While his Father wanted him to study medicine,he decided to pursue mathematics.However,as the subject was not taught at the University College ,Oxford,at the time ,he took up physics.He graduated in 1962 and joined Trinity Hall,Cambridge,for PhD in Cosmology.After getting inspired by mathematician Roger Penrose’s theorem of space-time concept on the entire universe.Soon after joining the university he started developing the symptoms for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis(ALS),as the disease that shuts downs nerves controlling the muscles .He was confined to a wheelchair and the doctors believed he would live for two to three years.
In 1965,despite his growing physical disabilities,he went to mary a modern languages undergraduate Jane Wilde,with whom he has three children Robert,Lucy and Timothy.The couple separated in 1990 and divorced in 1995.
After receiving a doctorate degree in 1966,he started working closely with Penrose.In 1968,he became a member of the Institute of Astronomy in Cambridge.Inspired by Penrose theories on black holes,he started working on black hole phenomena and postulated what came to be known as second law of black hole dynamics.
In 1974,Hawking made a huge scientific revelation that black holes was not the information vacuum as earlier stated by scientists.He demonstrated how radiation can escape the gravitational force and now the theory is known as the Hawking radiation.The same year,he became a fellow of the Royal Society.Over the years, he received several awards including the Eddington Medal,the Pius XI Gold Medal,Dannie Heineman Prize,the Maxwell Prize and the Albert Einstein Medal.
In 1979,he was appointed at the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the Cambridge University.With time,his medical condition deteriorated even further and he was unable to feed himself and lost control over his speech.
After a tracheometry operation in 1985,Hawking lost his voice completely.David MAnsion a computer engineer and Hawking’s wife second husband ,customized a speech synthesizer for the scientists use.
In 1988,Hawking published A Brief History of Time,which was a simplified version of cosmology for the masses.The book became an instant bestseller,selling more than 10 million copies in 20 years.
After separating from his first wife in 1990.Hawking married his nurse Elaine Manson in1995.However the second marriage lasted only for 11 years and the couple got divorced in 2006.
In 1993,he published a collection of Essays and lectures:Black holes and baby universes and other essays.It contains topics such as black hole thermodynamics and quantum mechanics.
Hawking Has appeared as himself in several shows and has portrayed and referenced to in several works of art and publications .He portrayed his own hologram on “Star Trek:The next generation” in 1993 and his voice was recorded and used for “The Simpsons” in 1999.He also used his voice for the 1994 Pink Floyd song ‘Keep Talking’.
In 2001 he wrote another book on cosmology:The universe in a Nutshell.It was followed by his work,including on the shoulder of giants(2002) and George’s secret key to the universe(2007).
In 2009,Hawking made a departure from his earlier proposition that information was lost in a black hole and hence it is not lost and can escape from a black hole and hence it is not lost and conceded that information is returned although not in the same state.
In 2007,Hawking went to a Zero-Gravity flight in a Boeing 747, which took off from the Kennedy space centre in Florida,U.S.A.
In 2009,Hawking retired as Lucassian Professor of Mathematics.By then he was unable to operate his wheel chair and used cheek muscles to control his speech synthesizer.
In 2010,he co-wrote a book with Leonard Mlodinow,titled The Grand Design.It focused on the universe and the 11 dimensions of M-theory. In the book,Hawking wrote ,”It is not necessary to invoke god to light the blue torch paper and set the universe going”.In an interview with ABC News, he said:”One can’t prove that god doesn’t exist but science makes God unnecessary.”
In 2015,Hawking became a part of the breakthrough initiatives,a program funded by Russian Billionaire Yuri Milner, to research for life in the universe.Its divided into multiple projects such as the Breakthrough listen which is a 100$million project that will search one million stars for artificial or laser signals.While the breakthrough Message is a project that initiates to create a message to be “representative of humanity and planet Earth”.The 2016 program Breakthrough Starshot aims to send series of probes to the nearest star about 20% the speed of light.